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Friday, April 19, 2019

The GIFT - Pillar to Post


By Anna Von Reitz

When I dug deep and down the rabbit hole, I was told that the Municipal PERSON -- aka --- Strawman, was a gift. Well, it was "conferred" on all of us without our knowledge or consent, based on the false presumption that we were British Territorial United States Citizens and "Wards" of their States of States, but giving us a "mask" --- a "person"--- that is slave and a criminal by definition is not my idea of a gift.
So what is really going on?
A scheme by the colluding criminal commercial corporations to get us in a crossfire and get us "both coming and going" -- and all under three false presumptions:
(1.) The false presumption that we are or ever were British Territorial United States Citizens;
(2.) The false presumption that we are or ever were a Municipal Citizen of the United States;
(3.) The false presumption that these two options (above) are the only possibilities.
In fact, our States of the Union and our Lawful Persons were here before any of the British Territorial United States Citizens and before any Municipal Citizens of the United States, either.
The "US Citizens" were created by the Constitutions.
We were created by God.
So, they simply tell Big Lies about us, and keep us defending ourselves, first as a Municipal and then as a Territorial Citizen---- and at no time are we either one.
It's just one big, jolly Lie Fest with the Brits telling lies about us on one side and the not-so-holy Romans telling lies about us on the other.
No wonder we are confused.
I suppose we could respond in kind by wantonly telling lies, but the Truth is far more devastating.
"I act exclusively as a lawful person. Where's your authority to address me?"

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For All the Jural Assemblies - 48 Banking Corrections


By Anna Von Reitz

There are two kinds of banking institutions available --- Federal and State. These institutions operate under different kinds of charters.  As American State Nationals and American State Citizens, we should be using and supporting State-chartered banks and credit unions.  

Why?  Because of the legal presumptions involved and the relative safety provided to Depositors by State-chartered banks and credit unions.  

We long ago advised that non-federal employees and their dependents, should shift their small business and private trust and Trade Name accounts to State-chartered banks and credit unions.  

We also suggest that people who have accounts in Federal banks and credit unions provide the bank CEO's with a Registered Letter, Return Receipt Requested, specifically instructing that all funds being deposited in and transferred out of such accounts held in our NAMES be "denominated" as "lawful funds".  

This prevents them from getting grabby in the case of a bank holiday or "bail-in" or similar fiasco.  Federal banks don't actually have sufficient United States Notes to trade in them --- USN's are a foreign currency --- but they are required to "denominate" the digits held in their accounts "as" United States Notes, if and when Depositors require this.  

Many people have had trouble locating the State-chartered banks and credit unions in their State.  In Alaska, this information is available from the State of Alaska, Division of Banking and Securities.  The State Banking Commissioner in all States should have that information or be able to direct you to the proper office.

A search by one of our more diligent researchers shows that there are only four State-chartered banks left in Alaska, only one of which is truly accessible and statewide in scope.  

There is only one State-chartered credit union --- Credit Union One.  Thankfully, Credit Union One has State-chartered organizations in every State of the Union. 

Each State Assembly needs to research this topic for their State and their Members, and make the information available to them.  State-chartered banks and credit unions are in-state Depositories by definition, and as such, are not as likely to be affected by any international banking collapse resulting in the loss of Depositor's assets.  

To bring this home to Americans --- the State-chartered banks and credit unions are "George Bailey" and the Federal-chartered banks and credit unions are "Mister Potter".  It has been this way since the days when the movie, "It's a Wonderful Life" was made, and it continues to be true today.  

The trouble with banking began in 1913 with the passage of The Federal Reserve Act, which imposed conditions that can only be described as contractual lunacy--- leaving only Section 16 of the Act as remedy for it.  From that time on, federally-chartered banks were obligated to function under this patently criminal scheme.  Section 16 of The Federal Reserve Act was "codified" as Title 12, Section 411, [12 USC 411] which spells out the remedy via proper endorsement of all banking instruments. 

Is it a check?  It's a banking instrument. 
Is it a signature card?  It's a banking instrument. 
Is it a court case?  It's a banking instrument. 
Is it a savings account?  It's a banking instrument. 
Is it a safety deposit agreement?  It's a banking instrument. 
Is it a mortgage application?  It's a banking instrument. 
Is it a mortgage closing document?  It's a banking instrument. 

All these and more are being bonded, subject to bailment---- and unless you specify otherwise using your signature correctly, you leave the federal agents free to presume whatever they like and whatever profits them.

You have a choice.  You can deal in "Federal Reserve Notes" --- I.O.U.'s, or, you can deal in lawful money, "United States Notes".  You can use the bank as a "Gratuitous Bailee" or the bank can use you as a "Subject BAILOR".  

As American State Nationals and American State Citizens, we should not be using federal "notes"----but as our identity was stolen while we were still babies in our cradles and we were never told otherwise, we were never given disclosure, afforded our exemptions, or told about this choice.  

When we endorse anything, that is, sign a banking instrument, we need to use a by-line, reserve our rights, and declare our intent by writing "Redeemed-- 12 USC 411--  in lawful money".  This backs up our instruction to the local bank CEO regarding our accounts and assures that our instruction regarding each instrument will be followed. 

Every time we do this, we reduce the so-called "US National Debt" by the amount being transferred.  

Since the Perpetrator's intention was to create an insurmountable, eternal "National Debt" nobody was ever told how to discharge it via proper signature, and thus we didn't sign the bank instruments in this way---- and the debt simply grew and grew and grew...... ad infinitum. 

So we need to use the Magic Words and say, "There has been a mistake." and we need to transfer our accounts and we need to instruct any Federal banks or credit unions we have to work with and we need to properly endorse all bank instruments from now on.  

A small red-ink stamp set up with the by-line like this:  By:_________________ with space for your signature, a small "c" with a circle around it providing copyright notice immediately following, and the disclaimers, "All Rights Reserved" and "Redeemed-- 12 USC 411--  in lawful money" underneath. You might also add your account number, but if you are going to change banks, maybe not. 

This will make properly endorsing checks and other bank instruments far less tedious and make sure you get the verbiage right every time from now on.

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For All the Jural Assemblies - 47 Actual Constitution and Codicils


By Anna Von Reitz

The Original Equity Contract --- The Constitution for the united States of America was passed in 1787, ratified by the States in 1789.

As soon as it was finished dealing with the first Constitution, the Congress was "reseated" and acted as the Territorial United States Congress which allowed it to address the British Trusteeship while the Original Equity Contract was being ratified--- so they worked next on The Constitution of the United States of America, and adopted as a codicil to the Original Equity Contract by a simple vote of the Congress operating as the Board of Directors for the States of America. 

Finally, the Congress was "reseated" a third and final time in their Municipal United States Congress capacity to write the Municipal Constitution known as The Constitution of the United States, which was adopted as a codicil to the Original Equity Contract by a simple vote of the Congress operating as the Board of Directors for the States of America in conformance with The Jay Treaty. 

Thus there is one ratification process by which the actual States approved the Original Equity Contract -- The Constitution for the united States of America, and the subordinate Constitutions were attached as codicils approved by the Congress acting first as the Territorial Congress and next as the Municipal Congress----and further sharing out "powers" vouchsafed to the States of America under the Original Equity Contract --- which is the only one ratified by the States.

One must remember that everything taking place during the adoption of the Constitutions -- is a power-sharing agreement between the States operating the original Confederate States of States, and two foreign subcontractors, according to the dictates of the peace process and treaties ending the Revolutionary War. 

They are divvying up the "powers" being "delegated" by the actual States to their own States of States and two foreign subcontractors.  

At  each step, the Congress is operating in a different capacity and jurisdiction --- first acting in public to restructure and limit the American Confederation of States [of States] dba "States of America", then acting to structure and adopt the British Territorial "share" via The Constitution of the United States of America, then acting again to adopt the Municipal "share" via The Constitution of the United States. 

And at each step, the Congress changed hats and jurisdictions, moving from General Session to Territorial business to Municipal business.

You can see the actual names of the entities involved from the titles of the Constitutions:

The Constitution for the united States of America  --- our Federal Government operating in international and global jurisdiction
The Constitution of the United States of America  --- our Territorial Government being operated by the British Territorial United States
The Constitution of the United States --- the Municipal Government being operated by the Holy Roman Empire

Originally, only the States of America were formally chartered by their own States; the foreign Territorial and Municipal service providers were doing business as private, unincorporated businesses under what are called prescriptive charters --- that is, they were not directly chartered and incorporated by the foreign governments (UK and Holy See) acting as subcontractors.

After the Civil War, both the Territorial and Municipal entities restructured as incorporated entities operated by the Queen and the Holy See respectively; they had no permission to do this, but there was nothing in our contract with them prohibiting it, either.  This is what the flap over the (repealed, by the way) Act of 1871 was about, and this is what cleared the way for them to be able to work all the insurance and pre-planned international bankruptcy frauds that took place in 1907, 1933, etc.

As unincorporated and lawful businesses these foreign subcontractors had to be accountable for their behavior, but as incorporated "legal" franchises of the UK and Holy See, they enjoyed bankruptcy protection --- which motivated them to secretively hypothecate debt against our American assets on the pretext that they were working for us, and then seek bankruptcy protection for themselves, while leaving us on the hook to pay off their debts --- all, conveniently, without our actual conscious knowledge or consent.

This is a crime on many levels, but most essentially is a constructive fraud involving unconscionable contracts and deliberate and premeditated bankruptcy, breach of trust, and false claims in commerce. 

The crime is only magnified because both governments chartering these organizations -- the Queen's UK Government and the Pope's Government -- had cause to know that: (1) the American States were the actual Parties to the Constitutions, (2) the American States were, as the Delegators of all the Delegated Powers, owed Good Faith and Due Diligence from their Subcontractors and Trustees,  including Full Disclosure and Assistance in resolving The Mess caused by the Civil War staged on our shores.

There is absolutely no doubt that both the Queen and the Pope and their respective governments which chartered, supported, and offered bankruptcy protection to the Offenders, are at fault, in proven Gross Breach of Trust, in violation of the Treaties and Commercial Contracts owed to our States and People, and lacking any plausible Cause in their Defense.

Now that you know that the only Constitution actually ratified by our States is "The Constitution for the united States of America" and the other two "constitutions" were simply applied as subcontracts, it becomes a lot easier to sort the wheat from the chaff.  

The actual Federal Government we are owed is supposed to be American owned and operated. The Territorial Government and the Municipal Government are both strictly defined and limited in their scope by the controlling contract, The Constitution for the united States of America, but have usurped authority by claiming "an emergency" that didn't actually exist in 1860 or at any time since with respect to our lawful State Governments. 

1. In order to enforce the Constitution and the Territorial and Municipal Subcontract Constitutions, we must be acting as Lawful Persons --- People --- of our States of the Union.  We are the only ones that are Parties to the Constitutions, therefore the only ones with the standing to enforce them. 

2. Our States are populated exclusively by Americans operating as Lawful Persons.  Our States do not allow US Citizens to participate in actual State Government, because they are at best Dual Citizens and may act in conflict of interest as a result.  

3. Only our States have the standing, authority, and capability to recharter and reconstruct the "missing" American Federal States of States (Confederation States) and designate American owned and operated Successors.  Only American Successors assigned by our States have the ability to reclaim the actual ancient and hereditary interest in the States of States doing business as, for example, The State of Georgia, The State of Maine, and The State of Texas. 

4. All "assemblies" that include US Citizens are not "State Assemblies".  They are by definition "State of State" Assemblies, either Territorial or Municipal. 

5. There is no provision for Territorial States of States or Municipal STATES OF STATES allowed under the Constitutions, therefore, none of these organizations have any actual public function or authority at all with respect to our States and People.  They are merely franchises of foreign commercial corporations in the business of providing "essential government services" per Article IV.  

6. Read that: Territorial States of States and Municipal STATES OF STATES are "Administrative Units" of foreign commercial corporation service providers, acting as franchises of the Territorial USA, Inc. and the Municipal UNITED STATES, INC. like Dairy Queen franchises, merely calling themselves "States of States" and usurping upon and substituting themselves for our missing Federal States of States.  

7.  "Administrative Law" and "Administrative Courts" are therefore private institutions that do not have any obligation to impose the Public Law, but operate instead upon Public Policy of their corporation's Board of Directors and Shareholders.  

8.  The problem we face is that millions of Americans have been deliberately shanghaied and misidentified and mislabeled as "US Citizens", both as "United States Citizens" --- Territorials and as "Citizens of the United States" --- Municipals --- and have been subjected to the Public Policies of these foreign corporations instead of having access to the Public Law and the Constitutional Guarantees they are heir to. 

9.  The further problem is that these same Americans who are being robbed and defrauded have been indoctrinated to believe that they are "US Citizens" of some kind or stripe, and many persons employed by the various levels of these foreign corporate "private government units" know no better.  Educating people on both sides of the fence --- both Americans and US Citizens (actual employees and dependents of the Federal Territorial and  Municipal Corporations) is a fundamental duty of the State Assemblies and the State Assembly Members.  

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"Beacon 37" Just New Version of the Same Old Scam


By Anna Von Reitz

As I explained yesterday, building materials --- straw, sticks, or bricks--- count.  

Beacon 37 is a house of sticks.  

It's a "States of States" organization by definition.  

It's another attempt to set up another round of the same old fraud against the actual States and People.  

It doesn't matter if these people are acting in good faith and ignorance, or purposefully trying to co-opt the effort and derail actual progress. 

The result is the same: you get nowhere, you get no protection, and you get no recognition as anything but another new Territorial or Municipal "State of State" organization.  

Why?  Because Beacon 37 is building with sticks, not bricks. 

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Moving the Cheese


By Anna Von Reitz

I have commented on this before, and will comment again.  

It is the stock-and-trade of the perpetrators of these schemes to: (1) destroy and burn books and public records contrary to their story line---observe the War of 1812; (2) rewrite or omit history to mislead others and promote their self-interest -- observe your own less-than-complete public school education; (3) evade and deny and lie about any truth that is not complimentary to them and their false claims in commerce.  

These Liars make their livings off of Lying.  Okay?  So that is what we are dealing with.  

They constantly change the Codes and the records and the court citations by renumbering, "revising", annotating, archiving, repealing, renaming, and in extremis, destroying material that contradicts their official version of reality.  

And they constantly misrepresent things.  For example, they continue to promote the assumption that the "Revised United States Statutes at Large" exist, when in fact, they were never adopted.  

That leaves us with what?  Oh, the original United States Statutes at Large are the actual Law, but people are left citing the Revised (Non-Existent and Unofficial) version, which automatically torpedoes and invalidates anything they say.  

These Agents of Darkness are as devious as you might expect, so you have to put on the "full armor of God" and sharpen your skills of discernment and think about what you are doing and what you are searching for. 

Title V was just "revised" again in 2017, and not surprisingly, it has been renumbered and the evidence of the guilty parties sale of "citizens" has been moved --- quite possibly entirely removed --- from the current version of Federal Code.  

Realize that what we are talking about had its genesis in 1868 and its most evident fruition in the 1930's, so instead of looking at the Federal Code as it exists in 2017, look at the Federal Code as it existed in the 1930's, 40's, 50's.

When trying to find a citation and it doesn't immediately pop up, look 10-20 pages on either side of the number of the Code citation given.  Look carefully at the notations added to the Code as notes and footnotes.  These often tell you where they moved "the cheese"--- and be forewarned, you may have to track down several iterations of this same process, because some "cheese" is so good they move it multiple times. 

Finding that they have re-numbered a citation is utterly commonplace, and finding that they have moved citations to other sections of the same basic publication, or that they have reshuffled whole sections and renumbered them, is as commonplace as dirt.  

So, please don't call me up and rave that you can't find a citation, therefore, it doesn't exist, therefore, I lied to you.  

When trying to find a "US Supreme Court" case, remember that there are six (6) versions of "US Supreme Court" and you have to be in the right church to find the right pew.  

When trying to find a court case, be aware that they rarely but consistently change the names of "hot" court cases by changing the names of the Parties or breaking up the court record into separate pieces.  

For example, a case that starts out as "People of Colorado v. Aims Hardware, Co."  will magically transform into, "State of Colorado v. Aims Hardware, Co." and a case that starts out as "City of Philadelphia v. Robert Burns and Company" will morph into "PHILADELPHIA v. BURNS"  and so on.  

Among old cases you will also find "Split Jurisdiction" Cases, where a land jurisdiction court had to rule on the land portion of a case and a sea jurisdiction court had to rule on the sea portion of a case, creating two separate court records in two separate courts.  Invariably, they have hidden the land jurisdiction court case in an effort to hide the existence of the land jurisdiction court, and you will have to dig very deeply into the bowels of the Archives to find what you are looking for.  

Nobody said this was easy.  This is why we have researchers whose entire contribution to the effort is tracking down certified copies of these source documents.  

Be aware that the "cheese" moves, and sometimes, it even disappears for a time, but also be aware that when I give you a citation, it does exist, and somewhere in my records, there's a hard copy of it with a date stamp and office on it.  

This what I suggest that everyone do.  Go to a Law Library, find your citation, take photocopies of the citation AND the actual book you took it from.  Literally, take a copy of the book cover and a copy of the inside pages showing the publisher, date, copyright, etc.  This establishes "the Record" at a specific source and point in time.  

And that nails the cheese down at last.  

Also, some sources are relatively free of this kind of manipulation and you will find that the lawyers themselves lean hardest on these sources.  Be aware that the only dictionary ever approved by Congress is Bouvier's Law Dictionary.  The common use of Black's Law Dictionary is because of its use in Maritime and Admiralty Law---- not land law.  

American Jurisprudence, Corpus Juris Secondum, usually abbreviated American Jurisprudence 2nd, or just Am Jur 2nd, is published by Westlaw and is widely regarded as "reliable" by most courts and For-Hire Jurists.  Therefore, unless you are obviously mistaking the meaning of the legalese, citations taken from this source are widely accepted and may help you find new leads in your research.  

Quite often, Am Jur 2nd will "link" associated cases, so if you find a reference to "Downes v. Bidwell" you will find listings to "Hooven and Allison v. Evatt" and other Insular Tariff Cases.  

Remember the video of the Mouse v. the Snake?  This is the Mouse v. the Cheese Maze.  Don't be discouraged if at first you don't succeed in finding a reference. 

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There is More Than a Grain of Truth.... from Julian Rose, Via Daisy Luther and The Garden Rebels


By Anna Von Reitz

"From now on, unless we cut free of obeisance to the centralised, totalitarian regimes whose takeover of our planet is almost complete, we will have only ourselves to blame. For we are complicit in allowing ourselves to become slaves of the Corporate State and its cyborg enforcement army. That is, if we continue to remain hypnotized by their antics instead of taking our destinies into our own hands and blocking or refusing to comply with their death warrants. This 'refusal' is possible. But it will only have the desired effect when, and if, it is contemporaneous with the birthing of the Divine warrior who sleeps in us all. The warrior who sleeps-on, like the besotted Rip Van Winkle in the Catskill mountains."

Instruction On Good Friday

Rev. Fr. Leonard Goffine's
The Church's Year


This day was formerly for the Jewish people a day of preparation for Easter, and was called by them the Parasceve; for us Christians it is the anniversary of the death and burial of our Lord who on this day, being Himself both High-Priest and Victim, offered Himself upon the cross for the salvation of the world.
Why do Catholics hold this day in such veneration?
Because it is one of the greatest days from the beginning of the world to its end. On this day the designs which God had from all eternity were perfected, as Jesus Himself expressed when He said, All is consummated; for on this day He was given up to the Gentiles by the Jews, was scourged, crowned with thorns, loaded with the cross, dragged to Calvary amid taunts and sneers, there nailed to the cross between two thieves, and by His painful death finished the great work of redemption.
Why did Christ suffer so much to, redeem, us?
To show us what an immense evil sin is, on account of which He underwent such cruel sufferings that He might satisfy divine justice. His love for us was so great that He gave the last drop of His blood to save us. He rendered satisfaction for all men without exception, that none might be lost, that every one might possess eternal life. Look up today, and every day of thy life, to Christ on the cross, and see how God punishes sin, since He did not even spare His only-begotten Son, who took upon Himself our sins, and for them died this cruel death. What death is due to thee, if thou dost not despise and flee from sin?
Why does the Church celebrate the commemoration of the passion of Christ in such solemn quietness?
That we may be induced to thank the Saviour for our redemption, and to move us to sincere love for Him by serious meditation on His passion. For this reason St. Paul ordered the observance of this day, and the Christians even in his time sanctified it by deep mourning, and rigorous fasting.
Why do we not observe Good Friday with such festivities as do the Protestants? [in Europe.]
Because our grief for our Saviour's death is too great to permit us to celebrate it joyously, even nature mourned His death; the sun was darkened, the earth trembled and the rocks were rent. Although the Christian rejoices on this day in the grace of redemption through Christ, he is aware that his joy cannot be pleasing to God unless he endeavors to participate in the merits of the passion and death of Christ by sorrow for his sins, by amendment and penance; and this is the very reason why the Church solemnizes this day in a sad and touching manner.
Why are there no candles lighted at the beginning of the service?
To signify that on this day Christ, the Light of the world, became, as it were, extinguished.
Why does the priest prostrate himself before the altar at the beginning of the service?
That with him we should consider in deepest sorrow and humility how the Saviour died on the cross for our sins, and how unworthy we are on account of them to lift up our faces.
Why does the service commence with the reading of two lessons?
Because Christ died for Jews and Gentiles. The first lesson is from the Prophet Osee, (Osee VI, 1-6.) and the other from Exodus, (Exod. XII. 1-11.) from them we infer that by the bloody death of the immaculate Lamb Jesus we are healed of our sins, and redeemed from death.
After the first lesson the Priest says the following:
COLLECT O God! from whom Judas received the punishment of his sin, and the thief the reward of his confession: grant us the effects of Thy mercy; that as our Lord Jesus Christ at the time of His passion bestowed on each a different recompense of his merits, so having destroyed the old man in us, He may give us the grace of His Resurrection. Through our Lord Jesus Christ Thy Son, who liveth and reigneth with Thee, in the Unity of the Holy Ghost, God, world without end, Amen.
REMARK After the Passion the priest prays in behalf of the one, only true Church, that she may increase, and that peace and unity may always remain with her; for the pope, that his government may be blessed; for the bishops, priests, the clergy, and the people, that they may serve God in justice; for those converted to the faith, that they may continue to grow in knowledge and in zeal for the holy religion; for rulers as defenders of the Church, that they may govern with wisdom and justice, and that those under them may be loyal to them with fidelity and obedience; for the unfortunate, that God may have mercy on them; for heretics and apostates, that they may be brought back from error to the truth of the Catholic faith; for the Jews, that they may be enlightened; for the heathens, that they may be converted. Before each prayer the priest says Oremus, (Let us pray Flectamus genua, (Let us kneel; when kneeling, we say Amen, and at the call Levate (Rise up) we rise: except at the prayer for the Jews, when the genuflection is omitted, because the Jews bent the knee in mockery before our Lord. As Christ on this day prayed for all men, the Church desires, that we do the same; say, therefore, the following:
PRAYER O Lord Jesus! who on the cross, while enduring the most excruciating pain, didst pray with a loud voice for all men, we humbly pray Thee for Thy vicar, Pope N., for our bishop N., for all the priests and clergy, for our civil government, for the neophytes, for the unfortunate and oppressed, for all Catholics, that Thou mayst preserve them in the true faith, and strengthen them, that they may serve Thee according to their different vocations. We pray Thee also for all unbelievers, and those separated from the true fold, for the Jews, and for the heathens, that Thou mayst unite all in Thy holy Church, and bring them to eternal salvation. Amen.
What is done by the priest after these prayers?
The priest then goes down from the epistle side of the altar, takes the veiled crucifix, and extending it towards the people, uncovers it so much that the head is seen, and sings in a low voice: Ecce lignum. crucis, &c.: Behold the wood of the cross on which the Salvation of the world was hanged! The choir answers: Venite, adoremus: Come, let us adore! at which all kneel, adoring Christ who died on the cross for us. The priest then advances to the corner of the altar, uncovers the right arm of the Crucifix, and sings in a higher tone: Ecce lignum crucis, &c.; to which the choir responds as before. Then at the middle of the altar he uncovers the entire Crucifix, and elevating it, sings in a still higher tone than before: Ecce lignum, &c. The choir responds again: Venite adoremus. The image of the crucified Redeemer, which has been hidden from our view since Passion Sunday should make a deep impression upon us; it teaches us at the same time how the Saviour became gradually known to the world. Jesus is adored three times, because He was mocked three times: in the court-yard of the high-priest, in Pilate's house, and on mount Calvary. When the crucifix is unveiled the priest carries it to the place prepared for it, and kneeling he places it on the cushion covered with a white veil to represent the laying of Christ in the sepulchre; he then retires to the gospel side of the Altar where he puts off his shoes, like Moses, when he was about to approach Almighty God; he then kneels and meditates on the passion of Christ; goes a few steps forward, again kneels, and still a third time, this time directly in front of the crucifix, he adores Jesus with humility, considers His infinite love, which brought Him to the cross and laid Him in the sepulchre for our Redemption; and then kisses with reverence the image of the crucified Saviour. During this veneration of the cross the choir chants alternately the versicles called the Reproaches, and between each part of the canticle the following words in Greek and Latin: "Holy God! Holy and strong God! Holy and immortal God! have mercy on us!" In these versicles Christ tenderly and lovingly reproaches the people who crucified Him, which we may also take to ourselves, who have so often crucified Jesus anew by sin. They are therefore called reproaches, words of complaint, and continue during the veneration of the cross by the priest. Afterwards a hymn of praise composed by St. Fortunatus is sung in honor of the victory gained on the cross by our Saviour, which calls upon us also to render praise and thanks to Jesus crucified.
Adore also in deepest humility the Saviour who died on the cross, and is now victoriously enthroned; ask with sincere contrition the forgiveness of your sins, and by a threefold advance, kiss with sincere love His sacred wounds, promising to love all men, even your enemies, and to have pity on all in distress, according to His example.
What follows the veneration of the cross?
The sacred Host consecrated on Holy Thursday, and kept in the chalice, is brought by the priest in procession, from the repository to the high altar, incensed in sign of adoration, and after a few short prayers the priest elevates It with the right hand, breaks It, puts one part in the chalice and communicates, and soon after leaves the altar.
Is there, then, no Mass said on this day?
No; for on this day there is no bread and wine consecrated, which is the essential part of the Sacrifice of the Mass.
Why is no Mass said on this day?
Because Jesus Christ having this day sacrificed Himself on the altar of the cross in a bloody offering, it is not meet that His death sacrifice should be today repeated even in an unbloody manner. Besides this, Mass is a joyous and comforting sacrifice, and is therefore omitted because of our mourning.
What devotions may be practiced to-day?
Besides adoring Jesus in the holy sepulchre, the stations may be said, meditations made on the sufferings of our Lord. Let the words of St. Augustine touch your heart, when he places the crucified Redeemer before our mind in the following words: "Behold the wounds of Jesus who is hanging on the cross, the blood of the dying, the price of our redemption! His head is bowed to give the kiss of peace; His side is open to love; His arms are extended to embrace us; His whole body sacrificed for our redemption. Let these words be the subject of your meditation that He may be wholly in your heart who is nailed to the cross for you."

MANNER OF CONTEMPLATING CHRIST'S BITTER PASSION 
Christ also suffered for us: leaving you an example that you should follow his steps. (I Peter II. 21.)

Whence does it come," d> writes St. Alphonsus Ligouri, "that so many of the faithful look with so much indifference at Christ on the cross? They generally assist during Holy Week at the commemoration of His death without any feeling of gratitude or compassion, as if it were a fable or an event in which they had no interest. Know they not, or believe they not what the gospel relates of Christ's passion? Indeed they know it, and believe it, but do not think of it. It is impossible that he who believes and meditates, should fail, to become burning with love for God who suffers and dies for love of him." But why, we may ask here, are there so many who draw so little benefit even from the contemplation of the passion and death of Jesus? Because they fail to consider and imitate the example which Christ gives in His sufferings.
"The cross of Christ," says St. Augustine, "is not only a bed of death, but a pulpit of instruction." It is not only a bed upon which Christ dies, but the pulpit from which He teaches us what we must do. It should now be our special aim to meditate upon the passion of Christ, and to imitate those virtues which shone forth so preeminently in His passion and death. But many neglect to do this: They usually content themselves with compassion when they see Christ enduring such great pains, but they see not with what love, humility, and meekness He bears them; and so do not endeavor to imitate His example. That you, O Christian soul, may avoid this mistake, and that you may draw the greatest possible benefit for your soul, from the contemplation of the passion, and death of Christ, attend to that which is said of it by that pious servant of Gods Alphonse Rodriguez:
We must endeavor to derive from the meditation on the mysteries of the passion and death of Christ this effect, that we may imitate His virtues, and this by slowly and attentively considering each virtue by itself, exercising ourselves in forming a very great desire for it in our hearts, making a firm resolution to practice it in words and works, and also to conceive a holy aversion and horror of the opposite vice; for instance, when contemplating Christ's condemnation to the death of the cross by Pilate, consider the humility of Jesus Christ, who being God, as humble as He was innocent, voluntarily submitted and silently accepted the unjust sentence and the ignominious death. Here you see from the example given by Jesus, how you should despise yourself, patiently bear all evil, unjust judgment; and detraction, and even seek them with joy as giving you occasion to resemble Him. To produce these necessary effects and resolutions, you should at each mystery contemplate the following particulars:
First, Who is it that suffers? The most innocent, the holiest, the most loving; the only-begotten Son of the Almighty Father, the Lord of heaven and earth. Secondly; What pains and torments, exterior and interior, does He suffer? Thirdly, In what manner does He suffer, with what patience, humility, meekness and love, does He bear all ignominy and outrage? Fourthly, For whom does He suffer? For all men, for His enemies and His executioners. Fifthly, By whom does He suffer? By Jews and heathens, by soldiers and tyrants, by the devil and all impious children of the world to the end of time, and all who were then united in spirit with His enemies. Sixthly, Why does He suffer? To make reparation for all the sins of the whole world, to satisfy the justice of God, to reconcile the Heavenly Father, to open heaven, to give us His infinite 'merits that we may from them have strength to follow the way to heaven. At the consideration of each of these points, and indeed at each mystery of the passion of Christ, the imitation of the example of His virtues is the main object, because the true life of the Christian consists in the imitation of Jesus. In considering each stage of the passion of Christ place vividly before your mind the virtue which He practiced therein; contemplate it and ask yourself whether you possess this virtue, or whether you still cherish the opposite vice. If you find the latter to be the case make an act of contrition, with the firm resolution to extirpate this vice, and excite in yourself a sincere desire for the opposite virtue. In this way you will draw the greatest advantage from the contemplation of Christ's passion, and, as the pious Louis of Granada says, there can be no greater honor and adornment for a Christian than to resemble his divine Master, not in the way that Lucifer desired, but in that which He pointed out, when He said: "I have given you an example, that as I have done to you, so do you also."

THE PASSION OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ACCORDING TO ST. JOHN. (CHAPS. XVIII., XIX.)
At that time, Jesus went forth with his disciples, over the brook of Cedron, where there was a garden into which he and his disciples entered. Now Judas also, who betrayed him, knew the place: because Jesus had often resorted thither together with his disciples. Judas therefore having received a band of men and servants from the chief priests and the Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons. Jesus, therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth and said to them: Whom seek ye? They answered him: Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith to them: I am he. And Judas also, who betrayed him, stood with them. As soon then as he had said to them: I am he; they, went backward, and fell to the ground.
Again therefore he asked them: Whom seek ye? And they said: Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus answered: I have told you, that I am he. If therefore you seek me, let these go away. That the word might be fulfilled which he had said: Of them whom thou bast given me, I have not lost any one. Then Simon Peter having a sword, drew it, and struck the servant of the high-priest, and cut off his right ear. And the name of the servant was Malchus. Then Jesus said to Peter: Put up thy sword into the scabbard. The cup which my Father hath given me, shall not I drink it?
Then the band, and the tribune, and the servants of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him: and they led him away to Annas first: for he was father-in-law to Caiphas, who was the high-priest of that year. Now Caiphas was he who had given the council to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.
And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple. And that disciple was known to the high-priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high-priest. But Peter stood at the door without. Then the other disciple who was known to the high-priest, went out, and spoke to her that kept the door: and brought in Peter. And the maid that waited at the door, saith to Peter: Art not thou also one of this man's disciples? He saith : I am not.
Now the servants and officers stood at a fire of coals, because it was cold, and warmed themselves: and with them was Peter also standing, and warming himself.
The high-priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine. Jesus answered him: I have spoken openly to the world: I have always taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither all the Jews resort: and in secret I have spoken nothing. Why askest thou me? ask them who have heard what I have spoken to them: behold they know what things I have said. And when he had said these things, one of the officers standing by, gave Jesus a blow, saying: Answerest thou the high-priest so? Jesus answered him: If I have spoken, evil, give testimony of the evil: but if well, why strikest thou me?
And Annas sent him bound to Caiphas the high-priest.
And Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. They said therefore to him: Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it and said: I am not. One of the servants of the high-priest, a kinsman to him whose ear Peter, cut off, saith to him: Did not I see thee in the garden with him? Then Peter: again denied, and immediately the cock crowed. Then they led Jesus from Caiphas to the governor hall. And it was morning: and they went not into the hall, that they might not be defiled, but that they might eat the passover.
Pilate therefore went out to there, and said: What accusation bring you against this man? They answered and said to him: If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up to thee. Pilate then said to them: Take him you, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said to him: It is not lawful for us to put any man to death. That the word of Jesus might be fulfilled which he said, signifying what death he should die. Pilate therefore went into the hall again, and called Jesus, and said to him: Art thou the king of the Jews? Jesus answered: Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or have others told it thee of me. Pilate answered: Am I a Jew? Thy own nation, and the chief priests, have delivered thee up to me. What hast thou done? Jesus answered: My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would certainly strive that I should not be, delivered to the Jews: but now my kingdom is not from hence. Pilate therefore said to him: Art thou a king then? Jesus answered: Thou sayest that I am a king. For this was I born, and for this came I into the world, that I should give testimony to the truth: every one that is of the truth, heareth my voice.
Pilate saith to him: What is truth?
And when he had said this, he went out again to the Jews, and saith to them: I find no cause in him. But you have a custom that I should release one unto you at the passover: will you therefore that I release unto you the king of the Jews? Then cried they all again, saying: Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.
Then, therefore, Pilate took Jesus, and scourged him. And the soldiers platting a crown of thorns, put it upon his head: and they put on him a purple garment, and they came to him, and said: Hail, King of the Jews! And they gave him blows. Pilate, therefore, went forth again, and saith to them: Behold I bring him forth to you that you may know that I find no cause in him. So Jesus came forth bearing the down of thorns, and the purple garment. And he saith to them: Behold the man. When the chief priests, therefore, and the officers had seen him, they cried out, saying: Crucify him, crucify him. Pilate saith to them: Take him you, and crucify him; for I find no cause in him. The Jews answered him: We have a law; and according to the law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God. When Pilate therefore had heard this saying, he feared the more. And he entered into the hall again, and he said to Jesus: Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer. Pilate therefore said to him: Speakest thou not to me? Knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and I have power to release thee? Jesus answered: Thou shouldst not have any power against me, unless it were given thee from above. Therefore he that hath delivered me to thee, hath the greater sin. And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him. But the Jews cried out, saying: If thou release this man, thou art not Caesar's friend. For whosoever maketh himself a king, speaketh against Caesar.
Now when Pilate had heard these words, he brought Jesus forth: and sat down in the judgment-seat, in the place that is called the Pavement, and in Hebrew, Gabbatha. And it was the parasceve of the passover, about the sixth hour, and he saith to the Jews: Behold your king. But they cried out: Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith to them: Shall I crucify your king? The chief priests answered: We have no king but Ceasar. Then therefore, he delivered him to them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him forth. And bearing his own cross he went forth to that place which is called Calvary, but in Hebrew, Golgotha, where they crucified him, and with him two others, one on each side, and Jesus in the midst. And Pilate wrote a title also, and he put it upon the cross. And the writing was: Jesus of Nazareth, the king of the Jews.
The title, therefore, many of the Jews did read, because the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, in Greek, and in Latin. Then the chief-priest of the Jews said to Pilate: Write not, the king of the Jews: but that he said: I am the king of the Jews. Pilate answered: What I have written, I have written. Then the soldiers, when they had crucified him, took his garments (and they made four parts, to, every soldier a part) and also his coat. Now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.
They said then one to another: Let us not cut it, but let us cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the Scripture might be fulfilled which saith: They have parted my garments among, them, and upon my vesture they have cast lots. And the soldiers did indeed these things. Now there stood by the cross of Jesus, his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.
When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing, whom he loved, he saith to his mother: Woman! behold thy son. After that, he saith to the disciple: Behold thy mother. And from that hour the disciple took her to his own. Afterwards, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said: I thirst. Now there was a vessel set there full of vinegar. And they put a sponge full of vinegar, about hyssop, and put it to his mouth. When Jesus, therefore, had taken the vinegar, he said: It is consummated. And bowing his head, he gave up the ghost.
Then the Jews (because it was the parasceve) that the bodies might not remain upon the cross on the Sabbath-day(for that was a great Sabbath-day), besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away. The soldiers, therefore, came: and they broke the legs of the first, and of the other that was crucified with him.
But after they were come to Jesus, when they saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. But one of the soldiers opened his side with a spear, and immediately there came out blood and water. And he that saw it gave testimony, and his testimony is true. And he knoweth that he saith true, that you also may believe.
For these things were done that the Scripture might be fulfilled: You shall not break a bone of him. And again another Scripture saith: They shall look on him whom they pierced.
And after these things, Joseph of Arimathea (because he was a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews), besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus. And Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore and took away the body of Jesus. And Nicodemus also came, he who at the first came to Jesus by night, bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes; about a hundred pound weight.
They took therefore the body of Jesus, and wrapped it in linen cloths with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is, to bury. Now there was a garden in the place where he was crucified; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein no man yet had been laid. Therefore, because of the parasceve of the Jews, they laid Jesus there; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.

THE PEOPLE AT THE CROSS, AND THE PEOPLE OF TODAY

At Golgotha, in sight of the temple and city of Jerusalem, in the presence of two or three millions of Jews, who had come to the city from all lands, Jesus, the Son of God, hung upon the cross, an , expiatory sacrifice for mankind burdened with all manner of sin. Near the cross of her dying Son stood Mary, His mother, filled with grief; by her side John, the beloved disciple, and kneeling at the foot of the cross almost insensible from sorrow and anguish, convulsively winding her arms around the wood of the cross, was Mary Magdalen, the penitent. On a cross at the right hand hung a penitent thief turned towards the Saviour; at the left hand on another cross groaned another criminal of impenitent heart, blaspheming the Holy One of Israel. Around the agonizing Saviour stood the Scribes and Pharisees, that hypocritical class of practiced miscreants, who hated and persecuted the innocent Lamb Jesus, even in death, who blink to all the predictions of the prophets whose books they had read, blind to the actual miracles which Jesus had wrought before their eyes to prove His divinity and His mission, filled with envy and hatred, reviled the dying Redeemer. At a distance stood a crowd of curious, indifferent people, who had come to Jerusalem to attend the feast of the Passover, and having heard of Jesus were present at His crucifixion. Not far from them the rough soldiers and executioners lay around, dividing among themselves the Saviour's clothes and casting lots for His seamless garment.
This was the society that surrounded the Son of God and Redeemer of the world bleeding on the cross, and in their different phases they are types of the men of today.
Only few were there who clung to the Saviour in unwavering faith and true love, ready to die with Him, and for Him. There were few who suffered all taunts and sneers all revilings and blasphemies, and departed not from the cross. Of these three were especially faithful, viz. Mary, John, and Magdalen. Those who like Mary and John are pure and innocent, or like Magdalen are weeping for their sins, who confess Jesus with their heart and lips, cling faithfully to Him, and permit neither persecution nor death to separate them from Him, are like the faithful three at the cross. As then by the cross, so today, the number of the faithful is small, and great is the number of those who, like the careless spectators of the crucifixion, are not decided enemies of Jesus crucified, nor yet His firm friends. They have indeed been baptized in the name of Jesus, they remain externally with the Catholic Church, which Christ founded, but they are sunk in lukewarmness, have no living faith, and are wavering to and fro like a reed between the world and Jesus. They fear the sneers of the so-called learned and enlightened, many of whom are well represented by the Scribes and Pharisees, who, having no faith in Christ themselves, bear in - their hearts only hatred and contempt for His Church; they shun the cross, because it is too heavy for their sensuality; they do not, it is true, commit public crimes, they prize highly a good name, occasionally observe the law of the Church, but are accessible to every error; their ears incline to every blasphemy against the religion of Jesus and His ministers, the priests. Instead of standing fearlessly and boldly for Christ, for the holy faith He has taught, and which the Church teaches, they turn away, are silent, even go with the Church's enemies that they may not be sneered at. The are neither hot, nor cold, so that the words of the Scriptures are verified in them: Because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold, nor hot, I will begin to vomit thee out of my mouth. (Apoc. III. 16.) The Lord casts away from Him these lukewarm, indifferent Christians, as nauseous saliva, and leaves them to their destruction. The true Pharisees of our day are those who purposely close their eyes to the light of truth, who have put aside faith in Jesus, and are no longer disposed to receive instruction. Their pride, their egotism has blinded them, with their poor reason they wish to understand the mysteries of ,the Almighty, with their weak intellect to fathom His ways, even seek to be equal to God; they deny every revealed truth, they deny the existence of heaven and hell, they propose to live like the animals, without God, — but their end is, ruin! Few of them, having seen their error, as the thief on the cross at the right hand of Jesus, turn repentingly to the Redeemer; obdurate as the robber and murderer at His left, the Pharisees of our day cease not to blaspheme the Crucified, and to revile His holy Church. These are assisted by the apostates and unbelievers, who, like the soldiers and executioners, divide among themselves His clothes, and cast lots for His seamless garment. Those clothes which the soldiers divided among themselves, are the truths which the apostates and heretics yet retain after their apostasy from the Church. They have divided these truths, for they have separated themselves into thousands of sects, and possess only portions of the one truth, which Jesus has laid down in. His Church, whole and complete. "Upon my vesture they have cast lots."
This seamless vesture of Christ is His holy Church that cannot be separated or divided, she is one, and must remain one to the end of time. Concerning this one true Church, the sects all quarrel, all want to be the true Church without considering that, as but one soldier, by the lots, received Christ's seamless garment, so only one association of men can be the true Church, and that is the association which Christ has chosen.
Thus we find at the cross on Golgotha the different classes of people of our day represented, namely, the pure and innocent; the repenting sinners, firm adherents of Jesus and His teachings; as also the lukewarm, wavering, nominal Christians; obdurate heretics, professed infidels and apostates. So today mankind is divided into like parties.
To which party do you belong, O Christian soul? To which do you wish to belong? Choose! The time of the division is near. The Lord already holds in His hand the winnowing shovel to clear His floor. If you are not a firm adherent of Jesus and His Church, in the storm that is gathering you will be blown like chaff. If you remain with the small group at the cross, in persevering courage, you will stand firm, and on the day when the cross shall appear in the clouds of heaven, you, with Mary, the mother of the (faithful, with John and with Magdalen, will triumph forever, as a victorious knight of the cross. Decide!