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Sunday, August 30, 2020

The Economics of The Other Great Debate - 2.0

 

By Anna Von Reitz

Meet John Maynard Keynes, the British architect of modern world economic policy, and try not roll your eyes upward toward the blue, blue sky.
The reason I say this is that Keynes came up with a lovely but patently wrong theoretic framework and concept for economic progress in the wake of the Second World War, which involved leveraging assets belonging to the people of this country to provide credit to rebuild all the other countries (Marshall Plan, my ass.) and, here's where it gets hip-wader deep, a constantly and forever expanding world economy.
This was largely based on the presumption that the world's population would continue to expand, and that "perceived needs" could be manipulated and increased via propaganda, to provide such a perennially expanding economy.
This is attractive and exactly what the battered and worn European countries wanted to hear after the Second World War; the American Generals who were sitting on a pile of American assets (garnered from all of us under conditions of Gross Breach of Trust, fraud, and deceit) were ready to invest, and so the deal was done and throughout the world, the name of John Maynard Keynes was heard to resound.
Not so much anymore.
The reason for the failure of Keynesian Economics is as obvious now as it was then:
(1) National and World Economies are the result of beliefs held by, and activities engaged in, by living people, and will forever contract and expand based on changes in those beliefs and activities as well as changes wrought by natural disasters and technological advancements. Read that: a perpetually expanding economy is a pipe dream akin to The Big Rock Candy Mountain.
(2) The Generals were investing money and assets that weren't theirs in investments that amounted to endless Black Holes; once the European nations got access to our credit to rebuild their war damages and pay for their defense, they became a queer combination of dependent and greedy, and wasted no time in "failing their way to success".
The concept of failing one's way to success is best exemplified by the career of General Robert McNamara, whose affable and high-minded personality enabled him to ingratiate himself despite having no talent at all at managing a business, and whose sense of timing enabled him to always exit his disasters right before the ax fell.
In the same way, the nations of Europe that became dependent on American largess in the wake of WWII, deliberately milked it above and beyond any sense or reason, and when they had succeeded in killing the cash cow, beat a hasty retreat and have attempted to wash their hands of the results.
One pregnant example of this is the fact that most European countries have spent 2-4% of their own money on their own defense for the past 75 years, the actual tab being picked up by "the Americans" and charged to us by U.S. Territorial Generals, who were also ---- of course ---- profiting themselves mightily by peddling their services as part of this Round Robin of self-interested fraud on the part of all Parties concerned--- except for the actual Americans who were The Goats.
It wasn't until Donald Trump got a look at this that it was even addressed as an issue. Apparently, we are expected to pay the defense costs of Western Europe and most of the rest of the world for eternity, and this is all part of Keynes' half-baked perpetually expanding theory of world economics.
Sooner or later, reality sets in, and as Margaret Thatcher observed-- other people's money runs out. Endless outflow requires at least an equal endless inflow, or the system consumes itself, and as the European nations and members of the former Commonwealth taught the U.S. Generals--- its hard to get inflow from turnips.
So the expense heaped upon us without our knowledge or consent has bankrupted "the US Incorporated" and "the USA Incorporated" --- both, and what we hear from the Generals is either silence or threats. To all appearances, all they have been able to come up with is another half-baked plan to steal the mineral resources of Third World countries and manipulate currency markets.
Now, everyone is looking at us, the Americans, who weren't consulted about any of this, and who never authorized any such deals, as if any of it were our fault and as if we benefited from any of this fraud and Breach of Trust by our Employees.
The first apparent result is that Keynesian Economics is an Epic Fail, and the admission of this fact is seen in the worldwide "Sustainability" Movement.
Someone, somewhere, most likely at the Vatican, jerked awake in the middle of the night and realized that endless, thoughtless, unbridled expansion of the world population is not a good thing --- even though it is required to keep the Keynesian Model going.
Other Parties realized that the efficacy of generating "felt needs" in the American population via endless advertising and propaganda --- and generating sales as a result --- was not enough. Our gross consumerism couldn't, by itself, keep the Keynes Model pumping iron.
And no matter how many juicy hamburgers and jock straps they inserted into the TV programming, and no matter how much fear they generated to promote more government services, things were topping out.
The Law of Diminishing Returns arrived with a thump on September 11, 2001 and the de facto default on Brady Bonds.
This is by far the most theatrical bond default in history, but what can you expect when Hollywood West and Hollywood East (DC) combine their efforts?
The answer of the U.S. Generals on that occasion was the same as it has always been--- more war, more take-overs, more pillaging of the people and resources of other countries --- to prop up their own service contracts and avoid the looming specter of what they call the "real economy".
For the uninitiated, the "real economy" is where we live; the "false economy" is where they live.
The false economy is generated by an endless supply of paper chits issued as U.S. military script, enforced by legal tender laws, based on American credit and backed by American assets, and all predicated upon the unjustified and unjustifiable presumption that we knew about this and approved of it.
However, these Employees who are supposed to act under a very famous and very public contract -- The Constitution of the United States of America --- are not legally or lawfully enabled to act under self-declared but otherwise non-existent "Emergency Powers" to do any of this, and the other Principals exercising our Delegated Powers "for" us, the Pope, the Queen, and the Lord Mayor of London, are all fully aware of these facts.
It's a con game, and a shameful one; and, though perhaps somewhat necessitated at the beginning by the destruction in Europe and Japan and elsewhere caused by WWII, its continuance and all attempts to blame the American victims of all this "US" finagling "in our names" cannot be justified.
So here we come to rebuilding a new economic paradigm. The answer of the Roman Catholic Church, acting in its profane secular capacity? In a word, "Sustainability"-- full stop, reduce the population dramatically by any means fair or foul, circle the wagons and try to come up with new excuses to claim an ownership interest in living people by using patented DNA and RNA inserted into their natural DNA to turn them all into legally-defined GMO Products.
The Church has done some really odious things in its long struggle to impose worldwide poverty --- their answer to The Other Great Debate --- but this one takes the birthday cake.
We are supposed to be good little cows, and as the motto of the BBC loudly proclaims, "Listen and obey." and meekly accept being bankrupted and oppressed by people on our payroll?
Right.
Need we point out that this proposed Second Round is even crazier than John Maynard Keynes?
Not only are the Americans awake now, they have called their actual and properly declared Government into Session to deal with this nonsense. No, we are not remaining silent and complacent. We have been grossly defrauded in Breach of Trust. These criminal acts against a non-combatant civilian population that has been at peace since 1814 cannot be excused as acts of war or waved away as a "mistake" owing no restitution.
Nor can we be induced to "trust" --in any fashion-- those who have brought the world to the brink of this insanity and allow them to act in our behalf or in our names.
We are owed the bulk of everything on this planet and we are not "missing" and cannot be "presumed dead". We are not war-like people, not bent on vengeance; we are far too practical for that, but we do demand fair-minded and practical answers for ourselves and everyone else going forward.
Violence of any kind including weather warfare, lawfare, psyops, civil war, aggression in the Middle East, or aggression against China ---- none of that is justified and we unilaterally oppose it.
It turns out that Jesus has always had the answer, and we have economic models that actually make sense and work, as well as the technology to deliver the benefits to the world. Above and beyond that, our underlying assets and the credit and the profits thereof, belong to us, so we have every right and reason to speak up and tell our employees what we want done.
What we want done is not thus far what they are doing, so unless the other Principals want to be exposed as Hypocrites, Liars, Thieves, Con Artists, Incompetents--- and worse, it's time to direct our Employees according to our Will, and for all of them to fulfill their very public contracts.
We, the actual Americans, shall be securing our assets around the world and taking charge of this nightmare; anyone who wants to oppose us should reflect upon the fact that they are all bankrupt, both in the air and on the sea, and our jurisdiction is the only jurisdiction left that has the assets and insight and ability to sort this madness out without devolving into totalitarianism.
So, if you want abundance and the freedom that goes with it, support us and our actual Government in international jurisdiction, which is our unincorporated Federation of States, doing business since 1776 as The United States of America.
If you want more results from the same "Planners" that brought us to this impasse, support the UN CORP and let them use the United Nations organization as a storefront for ever-increasing criminal activities.

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SHOCK REPORT: This Week CDC Quietly Updated COVID-19 Numbers

 Only 9,210 Americans Died From COVID-19 Alone – Rest Had Different Other Serious Illnesses

So get this straight – based on the recommendation of doctors Fauci and Birx the US shut down the entire economy based on 9,000 American deaths to the China coronavirus. 

The Other Great Debate 1.0

 

By Anna Von Reitz

We are familiar with the debate set off by the publication of Darwin's Theory of Evolution, but for well over a hundred years prior to that and continuing to the present, there was another such debate raging.
This Other Great Debate arose in the wreckage of the English Civil War, but unlike the debate over Darwinism which was (and is) a very public discourse, this earlier Great Debate was a different kind of ecclesiastical fistacuffs, touching areas that we were not deemed to be sufficiently interested to engage in public debate.
Listen and decide for yourselves if you are sufficiently interested.
This Other Great Debate centered on the existence of poverty. If God loves us, why does he show so little concern for the millions of impoverished, stunted, and miserable people on this planet? Is God a Deadbeat Dad? Or is there some other hidden meaning or benefit to poverty?
The Creationists (not the same Creationists who have disagreed with the conclusions of Darwin, but a name attached to the proponents in this prior debate, too) looked around at the abundance of the Earth and took the stance that if we were impoverished, it was because of our own bone-headed refusal to do the job that our Creator assigned to Adam. If we would act as better caretakers of God's abundant gifts, and share with each other as Jesus commanded us, then all would be well. Poverty as a systemic problem would disappear. Naturally.
Ben Franklin's irreverent reply is still part of modern culture: "Beer is proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy."
The Opposition, mainly clergy of the Roman Catholic Church, said, but, wait a minute. Our Lord and his Disciples were all mendicants, traveling from town to town, depending on the kindness of others to give them shelter and food. Is this not proof that poverty engenders virtue and is virtuous?
Oddly, after going a few rounds, one discovers that both sides of this argument center around one word: freedom.
There are two ways in which a man can be free. Either he has everything sufficient to support himself and his life and functions in a state of abundance, or, he has nothing, and so, is set free of worldly attachments and concerns.
The Founding Fathers stood with the Creationists and upheld the belief that if we accept "Adam's burdens" and care-taking responsibilities, everything is already divinely set up and ready to produce all the abundance anyone could wish for, and more than enough to provide every man, woman, and child with what they need to live happy and productive lives.
The Roman Catholic Church (and their Holy Roman Empire) took the other tack and adopted "The Doctrine of Scarcity"---attempting to end poverty by deliberately fostering more of it. Their answer to the Other Great Debate was that poverty is virtuous and leads to freedom from worldly cares, so the more poverty, the better.
Are you "burdened down" with your wealth, tired of managing your stock portfolio, yearning to be free of such responsibilities? The Church will take that burden from you, in exchange for food, shelter, and basic medical care.
Enter the modern welfare system and the schmarmy dark world of "social engineering".
In the process of relieving millions upon millions of people of their worldly goods, the Church has become unimaginably wealthy, has created the modern welfare state, and wittingly or unwittingly, also created a system of enslavement to the Church--- because when people are dependent upon you for food, shelter, and medical aid, not to mention, supposedly, the fate of their eternal souls, you exercise immense coercive power over them.
As usual, what started out as good intentions and scripture-based logic on the part of Catholic clergy three centuries ago, has led straight to Hell. While the Doctrine of Scarcity has led to social welfare via a different route than communism, it has had much the same result---- deprivation, suppression of individual motivation and initiative, and misuse of coercive power.
What of the other side of the argument?
We have mixed results. The Founding Fathers were correct that the Earth is more than abundant enough to support us all and provide abundance for everyone. Unfortunately, the moral and educational basis behind their original concept was never brought forward into the popular consciousness. Instead, the opportunity they created was seized upon by Robber Barons.
These men did not embrace the concept of Adam's care-taking role, much less did they embrace Jesus's concept of sharing the benefit of mutually owned resources; instead, these Robber Barons sought possession and control of natural resources for their own profit -- the more exclusive the control and the more monopolized, the better.
Thus we have the specter of giant mining operations in which resources belonging to the entire nation are stripped and used to profit a few, transportation that is controlled and monopolized for profit-taking, electrical and water and waste management utilities that are similarly monopolized for exercise of coercive power and the profit of a few, medical and pharmaceutical industries that are centered on profit instead of health, and so on.
As the only goal of these men and their corporations was profit for themselves and their shareholders, society has suffered as a whole and the Earth has suffered, too.
The Founders were right about our ability to create abundance, but the moral imperative for doing so --- and the envisioned end result, freedom, was lost in the shuffle.
Nobody on the street understood that freedom was the goal and that the creation of abundance was merely a mechanism to create freedom via abundance for Mankind as a whole.
The other part of the Founder's vision was that we could, with sufficient initiative, easily provide ourselves with ample largess, enabling us to support the weak, the old, the sick, the mentally infirm, orphans, and others unable to support themselves -- not with coercive institutionalized welfare, but with love.
In a world of abundance, there is no need to feel burdened by the poor, the young, the old, or the sick. Rather, once set free of the hard-scrabble, we are also set free to open our hearts and to care for those in need in our communities on a private basis.
The Founders took it for granted that from whatever religious or ethnic or racial background we came from, we would at least have the moral and ethical motivation to take care of our own and share our resources within our own communities. Our republican form of government supports and expedites this outcome, by allowing us to marshal both our public and private resources in pursuit of the Public Good.
After 350 years, the results are in and have yet to be tabulated.
Contestant Number One, the Roman Catholic Church through its secular institutions, including the United Nations and its megalomaniac UN CORP, standing for institutionalized poverty, cradle to grave welfare state, the end of private property, universal pauperism, coercive power wielded by the Church using forced dependency and control of access to food, water, shelter, money, and other resources to compel obedience to whatever the Church aka UN planners want.
Contestant Number Two, the American Dream Team, through their individual efforts, vision of freedom through abundance, community spirit, and common sense and enterprise ---- salted down with much-needed control over corporations and a refurbishing of corporate goals and management objectives worldwide. Continuance of private property and private enterprise, community-based welfare, local control of natural resources, and self-governance.
You are the judges. You get to decide the outcome of the Other Great Debate.

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Instruction on the Thirteenth Sunday After Pentecost

 Rev. Fr. Leonard Goffine's

The Church's Year

Pray today at the Introit of the Mass with the, Church against her enemies: Have regard, O Lord, to thy conversant, and forsake not to the end the souls of thy poor: arise, O Lord, and judge thy cause, and forget not the voices of them that seek thee. O God, why hast thou cast us off unto the end: why is thy wrath enkindled against the sheep of thy pasture? (Ps. LXXIII.) Glory be to the Father and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

COLLECT Almighty and ever­lasting God, give unto us an increase of faith, hope and charity; and that we may obtain that which Thou dost promise, make us to love that which Thou dost command. Through our Lord Jesus Christ Thy Son, who liveth and reigneth with Thee, in the Unity of the Holy Ghost, God, world without end, Amen.

EPISTLE (Gal. III. 16-22.) Brethren, To Abraham were the promises made, and to his seed. He saith not, And to his seeds, as of many, but as of one: And to thy seed, which is Christ. Now this I say, that the testament which was confirmed by God, the law which was made after four hundred and thirty years doth not disannul, or make the promise of no effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise. But God gave it to Abraham by promise. Why, then, was the law? It was set because of transgressions, until the seed should come to whom he made the promise, being ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not of one: but God is one. Was the law, then, against the promises of God? God forbid. For if there had been a law given which could give life, verily justice should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by the faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.

EXPLANATION St. Paul in this epistle proves to the Galatians who were misled by false doctrines, and ad­hered too much to the Jewish Law, that they could be saved only through a lively faith in Christ, enriched by good works. Therefore he says that the great promises, made by God to Abraham, referred to Christ, through whom all nations of the earth, who would believe in Him, would be blessed and saved. (Gen. XII. 3., and XXII. 18.) The law, indeed, does not annul these promises, since it rather leads to their attainment, yet it must be placed after them because of their advantages, nay, even cease to exist, because the promises are now fulfilled, Christ, the promised Messiah, has really, appeared and liberated man, who could not be freed from their sins by the Jewish law.

ASPIRATION O, let us be grateful for this promise, yet more, how­ever, for the Incarnation of Christ, whereby this promise has been fulfilled.

Tenth Sunday After PentecostGOSPEL (Luke XVII. 11-19.) At that time, As Jesus was going to Jerusalem, he passed through the midst of Samaria and Galilee: and as he entered into a certain town, there met him ten men that were lepers, who stood afar off, and lifted up their voice, saying: Jesus, master, have mercy on us. Whom, when, he saw, he said: Go, show yourselves to the priests. And it came to pass, that as they went, they were made clean. And one of them, when he saw that he was made clean, went back, with a loud voice glorifying God, and he fell on his face before his feet, giving thanks: and this was a Samaritan. And Jesus answering, said: Were not ten made clean? And where are the nine? There is no one found to return, and give glory to God, but this stranger. And he said to him: Arise go thy way; for thy faith hath made thee whole.

What may be understood by leprosy in a spiritual sense?

Sin, particularly impurity, by which the soul of man is stained much more than is the body by the most horrid leprosy: In the Jewish law (Lev. XIII. ) three kinds of leprosy are enumerated, viz: the leprosy of the flesh, of garments, and of houses. Spiritually, the impure are afflicted with the, leprosy of the flesh, who easily infect others, and are therefore to be most carefully avoided. The leprosy of garments consists in extravagance of dress and scandalous fashions, whereby not only individuals, but also whole communities are brought to poverty, and many lose their innocence. The leprosy of houses, finally, is to be found in those places, where scandalous servants are retained, where nocturnal gatherings of both sexes are encouraged, where, obscenities are indulged in, where unbecoming dances and plays are held, and filthy actions performed; where married people allow themselves liberties in presence of others, and give scandal to their household, where they take their small children and even such as already have the use of reason, with themselves to bed, where they permit children of different sexes to sleep together, &c. Such houses are to be avoided, since they are infected with the pestilential leprosy of sin, and woe to them who voluntarily remain in them.

Why did the lepers remain standing afar off?

Because it was thus commanded in the law of Moses, (Lev. XIII. 46.) so that no one would be infected by them. From this we learn that we must carefully avoid scandalous persons and houses; for he who converses with lewd, vain and unchaste persons, will soon become like them. (Ecclus. XIII. 1.)

Why did Christ send the lepers to the priests?

This He did to show the honor due to the sacerdotal dignity and to the law of God: for it was commanded, (Lev. XIV.) that the lepers should show themselves to the priests, in order to be declared by them clean or unclean; He did it to try the faith, the confidence, and the obedience of these lepers: for Christ did not wish to heal them upon their mere prayer, but their cure was to cost them something, and they were to merit it by their cooperation. Their purification, therefore, was the reward of their obedience and faith. Further, Christ sent these lepers to the priests to show figuratively, as it were, that he who wishes to be freed from the leprosy of sin, must contritely approach the priest, sincerely confess his sins, and be cleansed by him by means of absolution.

Why did Christ ask for the others, who were also made clean?

To show how much ingratitude displeases Him. Although He silently bore all other injuries, yet He could not permit this ingratitude to pass unresented. So great, therefore, is the sin of ingratitude, hateful alike to God and man! "Ingratitude," says St. Bernard," is an enemy of the soul, which destroys merits, corrupts virtues, and impedes graces: it is a heavy wind, which dries up the fountain of goodness, the dew of mercy, and the stream of the grace of God." "The best means," says St. Chrysostom, "of preserving benefits, is the remembrance of them and gratitude for them, and nothing is more acceptable to God than a grateful soul; for, while He daily overloads us with innumerable benefits, He asks nothing for them, but that we thank Him." Therefore, my dear Christian, by no means forget to thank God in the morning and evening, before and after meals. As often as you experience the blessing of God in your house, in your children, and your whole property, thank God, but particularly when you take in the fruits of the earth; (Lev. XXIII. 10.) by this you will always bring upon yourself new blessings and new graces. "We cannot think, say, or write anything better or more pleasing to God," says St. Augustine, "than: Thanks be to God."

ASPIRATION O most gracious Jesus! who, as an example for us, wast always grateful to Thy Heavenly, Father, as long as Thou didst live upon earth, grant, that I may always thank God for all His benefits, according to Thy example and the teaching of Thy servant St. Paul. (Col. III. 17.)

INSTRUCTION ON THE SACRAMENT OF HOLY ORDER
Go, show yourselves to the priests. (Luke XVII. 14.)

Such honor did God show to the priests of the Old Law that He sent the; lepers to them, although they could in no wise contribute to the removal of leprosy. What honor, therefore, do the priests of the New Law deserve, who through the sacerdotal ordination, gave not only received from God the power to free mankind from the leprosy of the soul, but also far higher privileges.

Is the priesthood a special and holy state, selected by God?

Yes; this is evident from the writings of the Old as well as of the New Testament, and is confirmed by holy, apostolic tradition. In the Mosaic Law God Himself selected a particular race - Aaron and his descendants-from among the tribes of Juda, to perform solemnly the public service, to pray for the people, and instruct them in matters of religion, (Exod. XXVIII. I.; Lev. IX. 7; King's II. Z8.) but particularly to offer the daily sacrifices, (Lev. I. II; Num. XVIII.) for which offices they were consecrated by different ceremonies, ordained by God, which ceremonies lasted seven days. (Exod. XXVIII. 4. &c. ib. XXIX.) Besides these, God instituted a sort of minor priesthood, Levites, for the ser­vice of the temple and of God; (Num. III. 12; VIII. 6-18.) they were of the tribe of Levi, and received no land like the other tribes, but lived on the offerings and tithes, and were consecrated like the priests. (Num. XVIII. 21.; VIII. 66-26.) This priesthood, an emblem of the real priesthood of the New Testament, was not abolished by Christ, but He brought it to its fulfillment and completed it, since He did not come to take away, but fulfill the law. For this reason Christ selected twelve apostles and seventy-two disciples from among the faithful, at the commencement of His public life, and He said to them: I have chosen you, and have appointed you, that you should go, and should bring forth fruit. (John XV. 16.) He gave them power to free man from sin, to sanctify, and reconcile him with God. (Matt. XVIII. Z8.) He commanded them to preach His gospel to all nations, (Matt. XXVII. 18-20.) and to offer up His holy Sacrifice. (Luke XXII, 19.) Just as the apostles were chosen by Christ, so afterwards by the Holy Ghost. St. Paul was chosen to be an apostle, and he calls himself a minister of Christ and a dispenser of the mysteries of God, (I Cor. IV. I) and who together with Barnabas was ordained. (Acts XIII. 2, 3.) In the same manner the apostles chose their successors, and ordained them, (I Tim. IV, 14.; II Tim. I. 6.) and even appointed seven deacons, as assistants in the priestly office. (Acts VI. 1-3.) From these clear testimonies of holy Writ, it is evident that, as God in the Old, so Christ in the New Testament chose a particular class of men, and established certain grades among them, for the government of His Church, for the service of God, and the salvation of the faithful, as holy, apostolic tradition also confirms. Already the earliest Fathers, Ignatius and Clement, disciples of the apostles, write of bishops, priests, and deacons, who are destined for the service of God and the faithful. Subdeacons, ostiariates, lectors, exorcists, and acolytes, are mentioned by St. Gregory of Nazianzen, St. Justin, St. Cyprian, and many others, but particularly by the Council of Carthage in the year 398, which also gives the manner of ordaining priests.

The heretics, indeed, contend that the Roman Catholic Church robs the true believers of their dignity, since she grants the priesthood only to a certain class, and give as proofs of their assertion two texts, where St. Peter (I Pet. II. 9.) calls the faithful a kingly priesthood, and where St. John (Apoc. I. 6.) says that Christ made us kings and priests. But these texts speak only of an internal priesthood, according to which every Christian, sanctified by baptism, who is in the state of grace, and consequently justified, and a living member of Christ, the great High-Priest, should offer spiritual sacrifices,1 that is, good works, such as prayer, mortification, charity, penance &c., on the altar of the heart, as also St. Peter, (I Pet II. 5.) St. Paul, (Rom. XII. I.) and David (Ps. 1. 19.) teach. If the assertion of the heretics were true that all believers are priests, why did God in the Old Law institute an especial priesthood, why did Christ and the apostles choose suitable men for the service of God? If all believers must be priests, why are not all kings, since St. John says, that Christ has made us kings? God, on the contrary, severely punished those who presumed to arrogate to themselves a priestly office, as He did to King Ozias, who was afflicted with leprosy because he burnt incense in the temple, which the priests alone were permitted to do. (II Paralip. XXVI. 18. 19.)

Of course heretics must make this assertion; for since they say that Scripture is the only rule of faith, and that every one can explain it, for what purpose are preachers necessary? And since they have no sacrifice, and with the exception of baptism, no Sacraments, for what purpose should they want priests? But since the sacrifice of Jesus is to continue in the Catholic Church until the end of time, since all the Sacraments instituted by Christ are still dispensed by her, and the command of Christ to teach all nations, must be carried out by her, therefore, there must be priests chosen and destined, who will perform the ministry of the Lord, and these must not only be chosen, but also be consecrated for this by a special Sacrament.

What is Holy Order?

Holy Order is a Sacrament by which Bishops, Priests, &c. are ordained, and receive grace and power to perform the duties belonging to their charge.

What is the external sign, by which grace is communicated to the priests?

The imposition of the bishop's hands, the presentation of the chalice with bread and wine, and the words by which power is given to offer the Sacrifice of the New Law, changing, bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ, and to forgive or retain sins. (Conc. Flor. in Decr. Eug.  et Trid Sess. 14. C. 3. de poen. et Sess. 22. C. 1.)

When will Christ institute this Sacrament?

At the Last Supper, when, having changed bread and wine into His body and blood, He said: Do this, for a commemoration of me, and when after His Resurrection He said to them: As the Father hath sent me, I also send you (to free man from sin and to sanctify him). When he had said this, he breathed on them: and he said to them: Receive ye the Holy Ghost. (John XX. 21. 22.) The power to forgive and retain sins He gave them when He said: Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them: and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained. (John XX. 23.)

Has Holy Order always been regarded as a Sacrament in the Church?

Yes, for St. Paul admonishes his disciple Timothy (I Tim, IV. 14.) not to neglect the grace conferred upon him by the imposition of hands, and in another place he admonishes him, (II Tim. I. 6.) to stir up the grace which was in him by the imposition of his (St. Paul's) hands. From this it follows, that St. Paul believed that the external sign of the imposition of hands of the bishops conferred a particular grace, wherein, indeed, the essence of a Sacrament consists. Therefore the Council of Trent (Sess. 23. de ord. can. 3.) declares those anathema, who contend, that Holy Order is not a real and true Sacrament, instituted by Christ, but only a human invention, or a certain form of electing the ministers of the Word of God and the Sacraments.

Are those called to the priesthood ordained at once?

No, they are not admitted to Holy Order until they have undergone a rigid examination regarding their voca­tion, moral conduct, and their knowledge of the sacred science.

How many degrees are there in Holy Order?

In Holy Order there are seven degrees: four lesser, and three greater. Of the lesser, the first is that of Porter, whose office is to keep the keys of the Church, sacristy, treasury, and to see that due respect is observed in the house of God: to him the bishop says, in his ordination: So behave yourself as to give an account to God of what is kept under your charge. 2. That of Lector; his office is to read aloud the lessons of the Old and New Testament, which belong to the divine office, and to instruct the ignorant in the rudiments of the Christian religion: the bishop gives him a book containing those things, and charges him faithfully and profitably to fulfill his office. 3. That of Exorcist; to him is given power to exorcise possessed persons: the bishop gives a book of exorcisms, and bids him receive the power to lay his hands on such as are possessed, whether baptized or catechumens. 4. That of Acolyte; his office is to assist the deacon and subdeacon at the altar; to carry the lights, to prepare the wine and water for consecration, and attend to the divine mysteries: the bishop gives him a wax candle, with two little cruets, bidding him light the candle, and serve wine and water in the cruets.

The first of the greater is the order of subdeacon; he serves the deacon; prepares the altar, the chalice, the bread, and the wine; he reads the epistle aloud at high Mass; the bishop before he ordains him declares that none are to receive this order, but those who will observe perpetual continency; he then gives him a chalice, paten, basin and towel, two little cruets, and the book of epistles; bids him consider his ministry, and behave so as to please God. The second of the greater orders is that of Deacon; his office is immediately to assist the bishop or priest at high Mass; and the administration of the sacraments. He reads the Gospel aloud at high Mass; he gives the cup when the sacrament of the Eucharist' is given in both kinds; he may administer baptism, and preach the Gospel, by commission. To him the bishop gives a book of Gospels, with power to read it in the Church of God. The third is that of Priesthood, which has two degrees of power and dignity: that of bishops, and that of priests. The office of a priest is to consecrate and offer the sacrifice of the Body and Blood of Christ, under the forms of bread and wine; to administer all the sacraments, except Confirmation and Holy Order; to preach the Gospel, to bless the people, and to conduct them in the way to life eternal; as also to bless such things as are not reserved to the benediction of the bishop. The bishop, when he ordains a priest, anoints his hands with oil; he gives him the paten with bread upon it, and a chalice with wine, with power to offer sacrifice for the living and the dead; then he lays his hands upon him and says: Receive the Holy Ghost, whose sins &c., and performs several other ceremonies.

Learn from this instruction to honor and respect the priests, whose dignity as representatives of God, and dispensers of His mysteries, surpasses all human dignity; upon whom a load, too heavy even for angels, as St. Chrysostom says, has been imposed, namely, the care of your immortal soul; who daily enter the sanctuary before the face of the Lord, to offer the immaculate Lamb of God for the forgiveness of our sins; to whom Jesus confided the merits of His most precious blood, in order to cleanse your soul therewith in the tribunal of penance, if you confess your sins contritely; of whom God will one day ask the strictest account. Honor, therefore, these ministers of God, pray daily for the assistance of heaven in their difficult calling; particularly on the Ember-days implore God, that He may send pious and zealous priests; and if, perhaps, you know a bad priest, do not despise his high dignity which is indelibly imprinted on him, have compassion on him, pray far him, and consider that Jesus has , said of such: "All things whatsoever they shall say to. you, observe and do: but according to their works do ye not." (Matt. XXIII. 3.)


1. See the Instruction on Sacrifice on the fifth Sunday after Pentecost, and on Rational Worship on the first Sunday after Epiphany.