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Saturday, May 4, 2024

International Public Notice: The Long Journey of Eduardo Rivera 2

 By Anna Von Reitz

Yesterday, we released a long series of documents containing Dr. Rivera's research into the nature of the American Federal Courts and in particular the nature of Federal Income Taxes and who holds the "duty" to pay them.  

He doesn't yet realize that the word "duty" is employed because the "Taxpayer" is assumed to be a Warrant Officer in the British Merchant Marine Service who is charged with the "duty", as in Admiralty duty,  to collect tariffs and taxes owed to the King and the British Crown in "the course of Maritime business and commerce". 

He will learn.  

He also doesn't realize that there are two (2) "Confederacies" in the early history of our country, one that was run from 1776-1781 by the unincorporated Federation of States doing business as The United States of America, and a second formalized Confederation doing business as the States of America from 1781 to 1861. 

People in this country have been taught (wrongly) that The Articles of Confederation were replacing the Constitution, but in fact the desire to create "a more perfect union" was referencing the desire to replace the unwieldy confederation managed as a Committee by the Federation of States with a second, more organized Confederation managed by the Union, doing business as the States of America. 

Those who have stuck with us know that from 1776 to 1781 the unincorporated Federation of States doing business as The United States of America handled all international and global business for the fledgling government.  

Perceptive students will now ask -- how could that be, as international trade and commerce occur in different jurisdictions and involve different kinds of business structures under different forms of law? 

The unincorporated Federation of States was inherently empowered to function under its own responsibility in all jurisdictions -- a quality and condition shared by unincorporated entities in general.  

It could therefore operate in international jurisdiction as a public business enterprise supported by the Several States that are its members and which contributed their mutual powers to the Federation to act on their behalf to conduct international business for them.  

The Federation could also operate the commercial functions through a Committee of incorporated States-of-States created by each one of its own member States.  

This first confederacy overseen by The United States of America (our Federation) during The War of Independence is sometimes confused with the Second Confederation organized under The Articles of Confederation and operated by the States of America from 1781 to 1861. 

Dr. Rivera has made this common mistake in some of his writings, but this is an arcane bit of history that does not detract from his overall conclusions about the nature of the courts and the issues.  

We refer international readers to his synopsis and evaluation, which is, with the exception of minor errors of the kind mentioned above, in keeping with our own findings: foreign law has been misapplied to Americans who are not federal employees, not voluntarily operating in any Admiralty or Maritime jurisdiction, and who owe not duty to pay taxes or, that is, collect taxes and pay them out to foreign interests. 

Another common error to be aware of when reading through Dr. Rivera's "Notes" is that throughout the early development of our country the lawyers followed the old Roman conventions and forms of translated Latin, so that the Union States are referred to as "states" and the members of the Federation are "States".  

Similarly, they used "the United States" to name various entities from 1776 to 1851, when new style conventions were adopted in an effort to curb confusion and conform to English usage, as English is our Official Language.  

Thus, the name of the country went from being "the United States" to "The United States", and the Union states became the Union States. 

This requires us to observe when documents were produced either before or after 1851 when these changes were adopted, in order to discern which "United States" and what kind of "United States" is being referenced.

"the United States" prior to 1851 may refer to the Union states, the Federal Republic, the Municipal Government, or the British Territorial United States. After 1851, the proper name of this country among the nations of the world is: The United States.  

The United States of America (Unincorporated) has always been the name of our Federation of States, but foreign incorporated versions exist or existed in the past:  the United States of America, Incorporated, and The United States of America, Incorporated, and the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, etc. 

This information is provided to assist readers as they sort through Dr. Rivera's Notes, in the interest of keeping everything sorted out as we all go forward. 

Issued by: 
Anna Maria Riezinger, Fiduciary
The United States of America
In care of: Box 520994
Big Lake, Alaska 99652

May 3 2024